Physics & Computer Science

Course Descriptions

CP104: Introduction to Programming

An introductory course designed to familiarize the student with modern software development techniques. Emphasis is on problem-solving and structured program design methodologies. Programming projects are implemented in a widely used high-level language.

3 lecture hours, 2.5 lab hours
Credit: 0.50

CP164: Data Structures I

Introduction to the study of data structures and their applications. Recursion, searching, sorting. Queues, stacks, heaps. Introduction to the analysis of algorithms, big “O” notation.

3 lecture hours, 2.5 lab hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP104
Exclusion: CP114

CP202: Website Design

This course provides an in depth understanding of website design and administration, short of server-side programming. Emphasis is on standards, good design practices, accessibility, and tools. By the end of the course students should have the skills to administer a website, deal with security issues, design readable, informative, attractive and accessible web pages that fit current standards, and apply a logical and consistent navigational scheme to an entire website.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP102 or CP104
Exclusion: Registration in BA or BSc programs in Computing.

CP212: Windows Application Programming

This course is designed for students who have a basic understanding of spreadsheets, word processors, and databases as well as introductory programming experience. The course introduces methods to automate repetitive tasks and create user-friendly applications in spreadsheets, word processors, and databases using the powerful macro language, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). Topics include: a review of programming constructs such as data types, looping, conditional statements, and arrays; the design of graphical interfaces with the typical "look and feel" of Windows software; the design of dialog boxes with controls and eventhandling code that responds to user input; automating tasks; consolidating data; providing userfriendly reports.

3 lecture hours, 1 lab hour
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP102 and previous programming experience, or CP104

CP213: Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming

Fundamentals of object-oriented programming, classes, subclasses, inheritance, references, overloading, event-driven and concurrent programming, using modern application programming interface. The language Java will be used.

3 lecture hours, 1 lab hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP164 (or CP114)

CP216: Introduction to Microprocessors

A comprehensive study of a current commercial microprocessor, its architecture and assembly language. Emphasis on (1) the relationship between architecture, assembly language and system operation, and (2) the relationship between assembly language, high level languages and operating systems.

3 lecture hours, 1 lab hour
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP220/PC220 (or CP120/PC120) and CP164 (or CP114)

CP220: Digital Electronics

Introduction to digital logic: logic gates, combinational circuit analysis using Boolean algebra and Karnaugh maps, number systems and codes, minimization techniques applied to combinational logic systems; flip-flops, multivibrators, counters and shift registers.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: PC220
Prerequisite: Registration status: Year 2
Exclusion: CP120/PC120

CP264: Data Structures II

A continuation of the study of data structures and their applications using C. Linked lists, binary search trees, balanced search trees. Hashing, collision-avoidance strategies. A continuation of basic algorithm analysis.

3 lecture hours, 1 lab hour
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP164
Exclusion: CP114

CP310: Special Topics

A detailed examination of a field or topic of interest not covered by the regular program. Irregular course.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Permission of the department.

CP312: Algorithm Design and Analysis I

Analysis of the best, average, and worse case behaviors of algorithms. Algorithmic strategies: brute force algorithms, greedy algorithms, divide-and-conquer, branch and bound, backtracking. Fundamental computing algorithms: O (n log n) sorting, hash table, binary trees, depth- and breadth-first search of graphs.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP264 (or CP114 and CP213) and MA238

CP315: Introduction to Scientific Computation

An introduction to scientific computation, with substantial use of scientific software, such as Maple and Matlab. Scientific problems and models from different disciplines are considered. Numerical methods introduced in this course include interpolation, curve fitting, solving (systems of) linear and nonlinear equations, eigenvalue problems, integration and solving ordinary and partial differential equations.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: as PC315
Prerequisite: CP104, MA110* (or MA103), MA122, MA205
Exclusion: CP225/PC225

CP316: Microprocessor Systems & Interfacing

Interfacing a microprocessor or microcontroller with external devices for real-time hardware control. Microcontroller hardware and software in real time applications; serial and parallel IO; timing generation; priority interrupt structures and servicing; bus timing. Interpretation and use of industry documentation and data sheets.

3 lecture hours, 2.5 lab hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP216, CP320/PC320 (or CP300°/PC300°)

CP317: Software Engineering

Discussion of software development activities, including software process models, analysis, design, implementation, testing, project management and advanced topics. Both traditional and object-oriented methods are considered.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP213, CP217 or CP264
Exclusion: CP417

CP319: Digital System Design

Logic families and interfacing considerations for logic devices, VHDL; implementation techniques for combinational and sequential logic; introduction to finite state machines and design methodologies for synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits; hazards, cycles and races; operation and interfacing of memory devices.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: as PC319
Prerequisite: CP104, CP220/PC220 (or CP120/PC120)
Co-requisite: CP300/PC300 recommended

CP320: Physical Computing: Digital Interaction with the Analog World

Design and construction of computational systems that interact with the physical world for applications such as home or experiment automation. Basics of electrical circuits, reading from analog and digital sensors, controlling analog and digital actuators, single board computers such as Arduino or Raspberry PI, analog components including diodes, transistors and operational amplifiers.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: PC320
Prerequisite: CP164 (or CP114), CP220/PC220 (or CP120/PC120)
Exclusion: CP300°/PC300°

CP322: Machine Learning

With the rise of data science and big data fields, machine learning has gained further recognition as the key driver behind the successful advance of these fields. However, many recent entrants to the field can only utilize the variety of machine learning algorithms as black boxes. This course aims to empower students to effectively use and understand the primary approaches so as to be able to modify them for specific uses. Our focus is less on theory and more on practice. Students engage in hands-on implementation of some of the fundamental algorithms such as predictive modeling and clustering applied to real, open-ended problems.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP312

CP331: Parallel Programming

Parallel computers, or supercomputers or high-performance clusters are ubiquitous today in science and engineering. Parallel programming requires inventing new algorithms and programming techniques. This course will cover the fundamental paradigms of parallel programming, with an emphasis on problem solving and actual applications. The parallel programming concepts and algorithms will be illustrated via implementations in OpenMP and MPI (Message Passing Interface), as well as serial farming.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP217 or CP264 (proficiency in C is the only actual prerequisite)
Exclusion: CP400N

CP351: Quantum Computing

Quantum computing offers the possibility of dramatic advances in computational power compared to the best computers we have today. In addition, novel quantum protocols such as teleportation and quantum cryptography have already been demonstrated. This course provides an introduction to this exciting and cutting-edge field. Topics include an overview of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, teleportation, secure quantum communication, Shor's factoring algorithm, Grover's search protocol, quantum error correction and the latest state-of-the-art experiments. No prior knowledge of quantum mechanics is required.

3 lecture/discussion hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: PC351
Prerequisite: MA122 and registration status: Year 3 or Year 4, majoring in physics, computer science, mathematics or chemistry

CP363: Database I

Introduction to database systems. Topics include data models, query languages, database design, recovery and concurrency, integrity and security.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP164 (or CP114)

CP364: Data Communications and Networks

Data communication fundamentals, with an emphasis on the physical layer, and telecommunication networks, with an emphasis on the architectures and protocols will be studied. Topics include transmission media, digital data transmission, architectures of telecommunication networks.

3 lecture hours, 1.5 lab hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: as PC364
Prerequisite: CP120/PC120, CP200/PC200, or PC212 (or PC210 and PC211)

CP367: Introduction to System Programming

Contemporary ideas and techniques in system programming using the C language. Introduction to the Unix operating system and Unix commands. Directories and files, device control, signal handling, process intercommunication, shell programming in Unix. Using and implementing software tools: filters, pipelines, sorts, text patterns and others.

3 lecture hours, 1 lab hour
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP264
Exclusion: CP217

CP372: Computer Networks

Introduction to computer communication networks. The OSI reference model. Protocols for error and flow control. Medium access protocols. Routing and congestion control. Internet architecture and protocols. Unix network programming.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP213, CP386

CP373: Ethics and Professional Practice in Computer Science

Introduction to ethics, computer reliability and safety, privacy, computer crime, intellectual property, impact of computers on work and society. Assessment includes written assignments and oral presentations.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Registration in Year 3 or Year 4 BA or BSc in Computing or Physics
Exclusion: CP400L

CP386: Operating Systems

Topics include operating system services, file systems, CPU scheduling, memory management, virtual memory, disk scheduling, deadlocks, concurrent processes, protection and distributed systems.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP216, CP217 or CP264
Exclusion: CP466

CP395: Directed Studies

A detailed study of an aspect of computer science or computer electronics not available through the regular program. Irregular course.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Registration status: Year 3 or 4 of an Honours Computer Science or Honours Computing & Computer Electronics program and permission of both the department and the instructor.

CP400: Special Topics

A detailed examination of a field or topic of interest not covered by the regular program. Irregular Course

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department

CP400Q: Android Programming

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP317

CP400R: Data Mining & Enterprise Computing

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP317, CP213 or CP217

CP411: Computer Graphics

The principles, algorithms, and techniques of computer graphics. Topics include introduction to graphics hardware, output primitives, two- and three-dimensional geometric transformations, three-dimensional object representation and viewing, illumination models and surface-rendering methods. Graphics software tools will be introduced in this course.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP264 (or CP114 and CP217) and MA122

CP412: Algorithm Design and Analysis II

A continuation of the study of computer algorithms. Amortized analysis, on-line and off-line algorithms, randomized algorithms, dynamic programming.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP312, MA238

CP414: Foundations of Computing

Deterministic and nondeterministic finite automata (DFAs and NFAs), regular expressions, context-free grammars, relationship of push-down automata and context-free grammars, definintion of the classes P and NP, NP-completeness (Cook's Theorem), standard NP-complete problems, reduction techniques, Turing machines, the halting problem.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP312, MA238

CP421: Data Mining

The course is aimed at an entry level study of information retrieval and data mining techniques. It is about how to find relevant information and subsequently extract meaningful patterns out of it. While the basic theories and mathematical models of information retrieval and data mining are covered, the course is primarily focused on practical algorithms of textual document indexing, relevance ranking, web usage mining, text analytics, as well as their performance evaluations. At the end of the course student are expected to understand the following:
1. The common algorithms and techniques for information retrieval (document indexing and retrieval, query processing, etc). 2. The quantitative evaluation methods for the IR systems and data mining techniques. 3. The popular probabilistic retrieval methods and ranking principles. 4. The techniques and algorithms existing in practical retrieval and data mining systems such as those in web search engines and recommender systems. 5. The challenges and existing techniques for the emerging topics of MapReduce, portfolio retrieval and online advertising.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP312, CP317

CP431: Parallel Programming

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50

CP460: Applied Cryptography

Algorithms and issues in applied cryptography. Topics include history of cryptography, block ciphers, stream ciphers, public-key encryption, digital signatures, and key management. Also, discussions of current issues in information security.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: MA121, CP213 or CP264 (or CP104 and a 0.5 MA credit at the 200 level with permission of the department)

CP461: Introduction to Computational Aspects of Bio-informatics

Introduction to the basic computational problems arising in molecular biology. Emphasis is on the development of efficient algorithms. Topics include sequence comparison, fragment assembly of DNA, physics and genetic mapping of DNA, genome rearrangements, molecular structure prediction. No background in biology is required.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP213
Exclusion: CP400G

CP463: Simulation

Discrete and continuous simulations, queuing theory.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: ST230 (or MA240 or equivalent), CP213

CP464: Selected Topics in Computer Hardware

Topics may include computer classes and evolution, instruction set design, hardwired sequencer design, microprogramming, memory hierarchies, concurrency, multiple-processor systems, and fault-tolerant systems. Students will be required to design and build a computer, including the design of the instruction set and the control unit.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP316, PC319

CP465: Database II

This course covers advanced database management system design principles and techniques. Possible topics include access methods, query processing and optimization, transaction processing, distributed databases, deductive databases, object-relational databases, data warehousing, data mining, Web and semistructured data, search engines, etc.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP363
Exclusion: CP400H

CP467: Image Processing & Pattern Recognition

Introduction to vision systems for image acquisition and display. Comprehensive coverage of image enhancement, segmentation, feature extraction and classification.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP213, MA240 or ST230 (or equivalent)

CP468: Artificial Intelligence

Examination of current concepts and techniques in artificial intelligence and machine learning. Topics include knowledge representation, automated reasoning, machine learning and knowledge-based systems. Extensive use of case studies and current applications.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP213

CP469: iPhone Application Programming

Programming applications for the iPhone, iPad, and iPod platforms, using the Cocoa Touch framework on Mac OSX. Introduction to the programming language Objective-C. Interface development for mobile devices and dealing with different input modalities, web services, and memory management for mobile devices.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP317 and Registration status: Year 4 of an Honours Computer Science or Honours Computing and Computer Electronics program.
Exclusion: CP400m

CP470: Android Programming

How to write applications for the Android mobile devices using the Android Development Tools. Developing software with the Model-View-Controller paradigm. Knowledge of Java is required. The course project will be the development of an Android app.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP213, CP317
Exclusion: CP400Q

CP471: Introduction to Compiling

Principles and design techniques for compilers. Compiler organization, compiler writing tools, scanning, parsing, semantic analysis, run-time storage organization, memory management, code generation and optimization. Students implement a substantial portion of a compiler in a project.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP213 or CP264, CP216

CP472: Programming Languages

Overview of programming languages, virtual machines, history of programming languages, programming language semantics, programming language design, introduction to language translation, declarations and types, abstraction mechanism, functional programming, logic programming, object-oriented programming.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP213, CP217 or CP264
Exclusion: CP400J

CP476: Internet Computing

The architecture of the Internet. Client-server programming, technologies of the web (URLs, HTML, HTTP, applets, etc.) Introduction to building web applications and server-side programming.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP363, CP372

CP480: Wireless Communication & Networks

This course introduces fundamental concepts of wireless networks. Topics include wireless communication overview, physical layer, wireless concepts and protocols including TCP over wireless; cellular standards, WIFI WIMax, and Bluetooth standards; applications such as personal area networks and sensor networks; other issues such as mobile communication security.

3 lecture hours, 1.5 lab hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP213, CP372 or CP364/PC364.
Exclusion: CP400P.

CP493: Directed Research Project I

An in-depth investigation of a computer science subject under faculty supervision, including the submission of a final report. Irregular course.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Registration status: Year 4 Honours Computing and Computer Electronics, or Computer Science, and permission of the department

CP494: Directed Research Project II

An in-depth investigation of a computer science subject under faculty supervision, including the submission of a formal report. Irregular course.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP493 and permission of the Department.

CP495: Directed Studies

A detailed study of an aspect of computer science or computer electronics not available through the regular program. Irregular course.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Registration status: Year 4 Honours Computer Science or Honours Computing & Computer Electronics and permission of both the department and the instructor

CP496: Interdisciplinary Design Project I

This course gives students experience working in a group setting to solve a substantial problem that may span several areas of Computer Science, Electronics, Physics or Photonics. Students will define the requirements of the project, develop a solution plan, produce a design, and present their work using written and oral reports. (Irregular course)

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: as PC496
Prerequisite: Registration in Year 4 BA or BSc in Computing or Physics or permission of the department.

CP497: Interdisciplinary Design Project II

This course gives students experience working in a group setting to solve a substantial problem that may span several areas of Computer Science, Electronics, Physics or Photonics. Students will continue the project begun in the preceding term. They will implement their design and demonstrate their work using written, oral, and video reports. (Irregular course)

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: as PC497
Prerequisite: CP496/PC496 in the preceding term.

CP600: Practical Algorithm Design

The techniques of algorithm design form one of the core practical technologies of computer science. This course focuses on advanced techniques for designing and analysing algorithms, and explores their use in a variety of application areas. Topics include: sorting and search algorithms, graph traversal algorithms, combinatorial search, heuristics methods, and dynamic programming, intractable problems. Students learn the skill of recognizing computational complexities of computing problems and designing solutions for them.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50

CP601: Seminar in Technology Entrepreneurship

This seminar focuses on the fundamentals of technology entrepreneurship. It involves taking a technology idea and finding a high-potential commercial opportunity, gathering resources such as talent and capital, figuring out how to sell and market the idea, and managing rapid growth. It also involves bringing incorporating a new technology idea into an existing business. There will be guest lecturers from the industry.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50

CP610: Data Analysis

Data analysis is a burgeoning field that allows organizations to discover patterns in data to help explain current behaviours or predict future outcomes. In this course, students learn the theories, techniques and practices involved in modern data analysis in order to effectively collect, process, interpret and use data in decision making. The course utilizes case studies from fields such as finance and statistics to expose students to topics including data collection, storage, processing, representation, and reporting, and also further develop their decision-making skills using decision trees and artificial intelligence.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50

CP620: Data Mining Programming

Multiple organizations across multiple industries (e.g., finance, retail, manufacturing, communication) are mining and analyzing incredibly large sets of data in order to predict consumer behaviour and trends. In this course, students use the principles of data mining and practical knowledge to visualize and analyze data using data mining software such as Weka.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP610

CP621: Data Mining Mobile Devices

With today’s consumers spending more time on their mobiles than on their PC, new methods of empirical stochastic modeling have emerged that can provide marketers with detailed information about the products, content, and services their customers’ desire. This course builds on Data Analysis by focusing explicitly on the unique data offered by mobile devices. Students learn about the types of data that can be mined from mobile devices including analyzing Wi-Fi and GPS data from websites and mobile applications. Other topics include: modeling mined data via artificial intelligence software and monetizing mobile devices’ desires and preferences.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP610

CP630: Enterprise Computing

Enterprise computing offers integrated solutions to organizations that need help managing a variety of problems including software development, resource management and data analytics. This course extends traditional Computer Science education through a practical skills-based application focused on enterprise computing which integrates IT management and application development. Students examine the principles, techniques and practices in modern enterprise computing with a focus on backend business logic computing and the technical foundation of data analysis. Students will learn to manage all aspects of enterprise computing solutions including security, user experience, optimization, and distributed databases. Practical knowledge is further developed through lab work, case studies and guest-lectures of IT managers.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50

CP631: Parallel Programming

Parallel computers, or supercomputers or high-performance clusters are ubiquitous today in science and engineering. Parallel programming requires inventing new algorithms and programming techniques. This course covers the paradigms of parallel programming, with an emphasis on problem solving and actual applications. The parallel programming concepts and algorithms are illustrated via implementations in OpenMP and MPI (Message Passing Interface), as well as serial farming.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Exclusion: CP431

CP640: Machine Learning

Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed. In the past decade, machine learning has given us self-driving cars, practical speech recognition, effective web search, and a vastly improved understanding of the human genome. This course focuses on machine learning, data mining, and statistical pattern recognition. Topics include supervised learning (parametric/non-parametric algorithms, support vector machines, kernels, neural networks) and unsupervised learning (clustering, dimensionality reduction, recommender systems, deep learning). Students work with variety of learning algorithms and evaluate which are most likely to be successful.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50

CP650: User Interface Design and Implementation

The user interface, also called UI or user experience, is the “front end” of a website, computer application, or software program that people interact with. Competitive advantage can be won or lost depending on the design of the user interface. To be effective, modern software application designs must support not only the required functionality but also fully engage users. Throughout this course, students apply proven user interface design practices to gather requirements, reduce user input errors, and provide intuitive navigation pathways through complex applications to ensure usability.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50

CP669: iPhone Application Programming

Apple iPhones are one of the most popular smartphones on the market today, with thousands of applications downloaded every day. This course provides students with the knowledge to develop applications for iPhones, iPads, and iPods, using the Cocoa Touch framework on iOS and introducing students to the programming language Swift. More specifically, students learn how to develop interfaces for mobile devices and the challenges faced when developing applications that use different input modalities. Other topics include web services and memory management for mobile devices.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Exclusion: CP469

CP670: Android Application Programming

As the worldwide smartphone market continues to grow, so does the demand for mobile applications. This course provides students with the skills for creating and deploying applications for mobile devices using Android, the most widely used operating system. With an emphasis on the Model-View-Controller paradigm this course provides students with the foundational knowledge that underlies many popular programming languages. The course cumulates with the development of an original Android application. Knowledge of Java is required.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Exclusion: CP470

CP680: Capstone Project

This course is available only to students in the Co-Operative Education Option and will be completed in the term following their co-op terms. Students will complete a major project that integrates their academic and work experience.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 1.00

CP681: Directed Studies

Individual study of a special topic not offered in existing courses at an advanced level under the supervision of a faculty member or other supervisor approved by the Department. The topics and evaluation scheme must be approved by the Department.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50

CP682: Special Topics

This course features a detailed examination of a special topic not covered by the Department's regular course offerings.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50

CP685: Cyber Attack and Defense

This course focuses on both the principles and practice in computer security. It provides an introduction to fundamental principles of computer systems and network security. It also covers the best practices of computer systems and network security protection and defense. The roadmap for the course includes seven main sections, including security objectives, vulnerabilities, attacks and exploitation, wireless security, web application security, defense and countermeasures, and incident handling and forensic investigation. Specifically, it first covers security objectives such as confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, authorization, access control, availability, and non-repudiation. Also, it covers the fundamental theories of vulnerabilities in software, computer system, network protocols, cryptographic techniques and social engineering. It then covers various security protection and defense mechanisms, including major security protocols and standards, firewalls, intrusion detection, wireless security, and web application security. It also discusses the latest cutting-edge insidious attack vectors, and the patterns of denial-of-service attacks. This course also presents the understanding tools needed to defend against attackers maintaining access and covering their tracks. This course examines and reviews various types of hacking tools as well as ways to harden the system or application against these attacks.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50

CP699: Master's Thesis

Students will complete a thesis based on original research and defend it before an examining committee.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 2.00

PC131: Mechanics

Calculus-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: one-dimensional motion, vectors, motion in two and three dimensions, force and motion, kinetic energy and work, potential energy, conservation of energy, collisions and momentum, rotational motion, simple harmonic motion, torque, angular momentum, and gravitation.

Lecture/Discussion: 3, Lab: 2 (biweekly)
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: OAC or Grade 12U Physics or Advanced Functions and Introductory Calculus
Co-requisite: MA110* or MA103 or MA105
Exclusion: PC100*, PC110*, PC141, PC151, PC161, SC100

PC132: Thermodynamics and Waves

Calculus-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: elasticity, fluids, waves and sound, temperature and heat, the laws of thermodynamics, entropy, and an introduction to electricity.

Lecture/Discussion: 3, Lab: 2 (biweekly)
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC131, MA110* (co-requisite) or MA103 or MA105.
Exclusion: PC100*, PC110*, PC142

PC141: Mechanics for the Life Sciences

Algebra-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: kinematics, motion in two dimensions, force, work and energy, linear momentum and collisions, circular motion and gravitation, rotational motion and equilibrium.

Lecture/Discussion: 3, Lab: 2 (biweekly)
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: One of OAC or Grade 12U Biology, Chemistry, or Physics
Exclusion: PC100*, PC110*, PC131, PC151, PC161, SC100

PC142: Thermodynamics and Waves for the Life Sciences

Algebra-based course, which introduces basic principles of physics. Detailed topics covered: solids and fluids, temperature, heat, thermodynamics, vibrations and waves, sound.

Lecture/Discussion: 3, Lab: 2 (biweekly)
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC141 or PC131
Exclusion: PC100*, PC110*, PC132

PC151: Mechanics

Identical to PC131 but without the labs.

3 lecture/discussion hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: OAC or Grade 12U Physics or Advanced Functions and Introductory Calculus
Co-requisite: MA100 or MA110* or MA103 or MA105
Exclusion: PC131, PC141, PC161, BSc degree programs, physics minor

PC152: Thermodynamics & Waves

Identical to PC132 but without the labs.

3 lecture/discussion hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC151 or PC131
Exclusion: PC132, PC142, PC162, BSc degree programs, physics minor

PC161: Mechanics for Life Sciences

Identical to PC141 but without the labs.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: One of OAC or Grade 12U in Biology, Chemistry, or Physics
Exclusion: PC131, PC141, PC151, BSc degree programs, physics minor

PC162: Thermodynamics & Waves

Identical to PC142 but without the labs.

3 lecture/discussion hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC161 (or PC131 or PC141 or PC151)
Exclusion: PC132, PC142, PC152, BSc degree programs, physics minor

PC212: Electricity and Magnetism

Introduction to electrostatics and magnetostatics including Gauss' law, electric potential, capacitance, electromagnetic induction. Introductory DC and AC circuit theory. Electromagnetic waves.

3 lecture/discussion hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC131, PC132 (or PC141 and PC142), MA122, and one of MA110* or MA103 or MA105.

PC220: Digital Electronics

Introduction to digital logic: logic gates, combinational circuit analysis using Boolean algebra and Karnaugh maps, number systems and codes, minimization techniques applied to combinational logic systems; flip-flops, multivibrators, counters and shift registers.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: CP220
Prerequisite: Registration status: Year 2
Exclusion: CP120/PC120

PC221: Analog Electronics I

AC circuit theory, complex impedance, resonance, Norton and Thvenin Theorems, semiconductor diodes, bipolar transistors, bias circuits, h-parameters, amplification, feedback.

3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: CP220/PC220 (or CP200/PC200 or CP120/PC120), PC212

PC235: Classical Mechanics

This is an intermediate level course in classical mechanics. The major topics covered are Newtonian dynamics, dynamics of particles, non-inertial frames of reference, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, oscillations, rigid body motion.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC131, MA201, MA205.

PC236: Fundamentals of Photonics

Introduction to photonics, the science and technology of generating and controlling light (photons). Topics include overview of optics, light wave fundamentals, lasers, and applications of photonics in science and engineering, such as bioimaging and optical fibre communication.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Registration status: senior student, or permission of the department.
Exclusion: PC135; Honours Photonics students in year 3 or 4

PC237: Optics

Nature of light: Huygen's principle, Fermat's principle. Geometrical optics: reflection and refraction at plane and curved surfaces, lenses and lens systems. Wave optics: interference, diffraction, polarization.

3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC131, PC132 (or PC141, PC142) and one of MA110* or MA103 or MA105.

PC242: Modern Physics

Failure of classical physics and early quantum theory, blackbody radiation and Planck's theory, the photoelectric effect and light quanta, wave particle duality, Compton scattering, De Broglie and matter waves, Davisson and Germer experiment, energy quantization, Bohr's theory of hydrogen, topics in atomic theory and the periodic table, X-ray spectra, molecules, phenomenological description of solids, Fermi statistics, conduction, semiconductors, energy bands. Nuclear physics, radioactivity, and modern particle physics, accelerators. Relativity.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC131, PC132, (or PC141, PC142), MA205.

PC310: Special Topics

A detailed examination of a field or topic of interest not covered by the regular program. Irregular course.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Permission of the department.

PC310B: Planetary and Space Science

This is an introductory course in planetary and space science. We will study the basic physics, structure, morphology and evolution of each planet separately, including comets, asteroids, and meteorites, Kuiper belt and Oort cloud. We will address the most recent theories of the Solar System formation and evolution hypotheses as a whole, and we will touch briefly upon all the known theories from the tidal theory to the most recent re-emergence of the nebular hypothesis. We will also examine the corresponding outstanding issues, as well as the solar evolution hypothesis. Finally, we will discuss in a fair amount of detail the most important up to date deep space missions, their findings, and their importance in the understanding of our neighborhood as a whole. It must be emphasized that this is a totally different course than the AS101A and AS101B.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Permission of the department.

PC310C: Physics for Medicine & Biology

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Permission of the department.

PC315: Introduction to Scientific Computation

An introduction to scientific computation, with substantial use of scientific software, such as Maple and Matlab. Scientific problems and models from different disciplines are considered. Numerical methods introduced in this course include interpolation, curve fitting, solving (systems of) linear and nonlinear equations, eigenvalue problems, integration and solving ordinary and partial differential equations.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: as CP315
Prerequisite: CP104, MA110* (or MA103), MA122, MA205
Exclusion: CP225/PC225

PC319: Digital System Design

Logic families and interfacing considerations for logic devices, VHDL; implementation techniques for combinational and sequential logic; introduction to finite state machines and design methodologies for synchronous and asynchronous sequential circuits; hazards, cycles and races; operation and interfacing of memory devices.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: as CP319
Prerequisite: CP104, CP220/PC220 (or CP120/PC120)
Co-requisite: CP300/PC300 recommended

PC320: Physical Computing: Digital Interaction with the Analog World

Design and construction of computational systems that interact with the physical world for applications such as home or experiment automation. Basics of electrical circuits, reading from analog and digital sensors, controlling analog and digital actuators, single board computers such as Arduino or Raspberry PI, analog components including diodes, transistors and operational amplifiers.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: CP320
Prerequisite: CP164 (or CP114), CP220/PC220 (or CP120/PC120)
Exclusion: CP300°/PC300°

PC321: Quantum Mechanics I

Schroedinger equation, interpretation of the wave function, expectation value, Ehrenfest's theorem, wave packets, stationary states and energy quantization, potential wells and potential barriers, scattering and tunneling, the harmonic oscillator, Schroedinger equation in three dimensions, the hydrogen atom, WKB approximation.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC242, MA205

PC322: Solid State Device Physics

Operating principles of solid state devices from the viewpoint of the quantum theory, silicon and germanium diodes, tunnel diodes, junction transistors, special topics.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC242

PC331: Quantum Mechanics II

Advanced quantum mechanics. Topics covered include identical particles, time-independent and time-dependent perturbation theory, variational principle and Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC321, MA205

PC344: Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

An introduction to thermodynamics and its statistical basis at the microscopic level, with applications to problelms originating in a modern laboratory or engineering environment. Topics include thermodynamics of model systems, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, quantum statistics and applications.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC131, PC132, (or PC141 and PC142), MA201.

PC351: Quantum Computing

Quantum computing offers the possibility of dramatic advances in computational power compared to the best computers we have today. In addition, novel quantum protocols such as teleportation and quantum cryptography have already been demonstrated. This course provides an introduction to this exciting and cutting-edge field. Topics include an overview of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, teleportation, secure quantum communication, Shor's factoring algorithm, Grover's search protocol, quantum error correction and the latest state-of-the-art experiments. No prior knowledge of quantum mechanics is required.

3 lecture/discussion hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: CP351
Prerequisite: MA122 and registration status: Year 3 or Year 4, majoring in physics, computer science, mathematics or chemistry

PC360: Electromagnetic Theory

Maxwell's equations, plane wave theory of waveguides, radiating systems.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC212, PC237, MA201, MA205

PC364: Data Communications and Networks

Data communication fundamentals, with an emphasis on the physical layer, and telecommunication networks, with an emphasis on the architectures and protocols will be studied. Topics include transmission media, digital data transmission, architectures of telecommunication networks.

3 lecture hours, 1.5 lab hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: as CP364
Prerequisite: CP320/PC320 (or CP120/PC120 and CP200°/PC200°), PC212

PC395: Directed Studies

A detailed study of an aspect of computer electronics, photonics or physics not available through the regular program. Irregular course.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Registration status: Year 3 or 4 of an Honours Physics, Honours Photonics or Honours Computing & Computer Electronics program and permission of both the department and the instructor.

PC400: Special Topics

A detailed examination of a field or topic of interest not covered by the regular program. (Irregular course)

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Permission of the Department.

PC421: Photonics Devices

Design and operation of modern optoelectronic devices. Semiconductor band structure, semiconductor and metal-semiconductor junctions, optical gain and absorption in semiconductors, modal and charge-carrier confinement, rate equations, semiconductor heterostructures, light-emitting diodes, quantum-well structures, distributed feedback and vertical-cavity lasers, signal modulation, photodetectors.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC454 (or PC322), PC482.

PC450: Instrumentation

Amplifiers and filters, temperature transducers including thermistors, semiconductor diodes, and thermocouples, photodetectors, strain and pressure sensing, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion, true RMS measurements, data acquisition systems, the IEEE 488 instrumentation bus, special topics.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC120, PC221

PC454: Solid State Physics

The purpose of this course is to acquaint the student with the fundamentals of solid state physics. This emphasis is on understanding the behavior of electrons in metals and semiconductors. Topics discussed: crystal structure, reciprocal lattice, crystal binding and elastic constants, phonons, free-electron Fermi gas, energy bands, semiconductor crystals and Fermi surfaces.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC321

PC471: Analog Electronics II

Amplifiers, oscillators, operational amplifiers, active filters, special circuits.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC221

PC474: Optical Networks

A study of the building blocks, the architecture, and realization of optic networks; new developments in optic network technology, such as DWDM.

3 lecture hours, 1.5 lab hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC364, PC481

PC475: Design of Control Systems

Modeling of physical systems using differential equations, block diagrams, signal flow graphs, transfer functions, step response, PID controller, root locus design, Bode plots, Nyquist stability criteria, state-space design.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC221, MA205

PC481: Fibre Optics

Types of fibres. Basic theory: characteristics, numerical aperture, losses, dispersion, modes. Passive fibre devices: couplers, connectors, splices. Light sources: LED, solid and semiconductor lasers. Modulators. Detectors. Systems design.

3 lecture hours, 2 lab hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC237

PC482: Lasers and Electro-optics

An introduction to steady-state theories of laser oscillators and amplifiers, spectroscopy of laser media, population inversion mechanism in gaseous and solid-state systems. Topics include propagation of optical beams in homogenous and lens like media, optical resonators and some specific laser systems.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC331, PC344, PC360

PC491: Directed Research Project I

An in-depth investigation of a topic under faculty supervision, including the submission of a formal report.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: Registration status: Year 4 Honours Computing and Computer Electronics, Honours Physics or Honours Photonics and permission of the department.

PC492: Directed Research Project II

An in-depth investigation of a topic under faculty supervision, including the submission of a formal report.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: PC491 and permission of the Department

PC495: Directed Studies

A detailed study of an aspect of computer electronics, photonics or physics not available through the regular program. Irregular course.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: PC220
Prerequisite: Registration status: Year 4 Honours Physics, Honours Photonics or Honours Computing & Computer Electronics and permission of both the department and the instructor.
Exclusion: CP120/PC120

PC496: Interdisciplinary Design Project I

This course gives students experience working in a group setting to solve a substantial problem that may span several areas of Computer Science, Electronics, Physics or Photonics. Students will define the requirements of the project, develop a solution plan, produce a design, and present their work using written and oral reports. (Irregular course)

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: as CP496
Prerequisite: Registration in Year 4 BA or BSc in Computing or Physics or permission of the department.

PC497: Interdisciplinary Design Project II

This course gives students experience working in a group setting to solve a substantial problem that may span several areas of Computer Science, Electronics, Physics or Photonics. Students will continue the project begun in the preceding term. They will implement their design and demonstrate their work using written, oral, and video reports. (Irregular course)

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Cross-Listed: as CP497
Prerequisite: CP496/PC496 in the preceding term.

AS101: Astronomy I: Our Place in the Cosmos

An introduction to the science of astronomy, the process by which we develop astronomical principles and the application of these techniques to gain a modern understanding of our Solar System. Topics covered include the historical development of astronomy, understanding the night sky, Newton's law of gravitation, light and telescopes, and a detailed study of the Solar System. New data from recent explorations of Mars, Saturn and other celestial objects will be discussed.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Exclusion: AS105

AS102: Astronomy II: Journey Through the Cosmos

A journey beyond our Solar System to develop a modern understanding of other stars, galaxies and the structure, origin and fate of the universe. Includes an introduction to basic concepts of relativity and quantum mechanics, lives of stars, evolution of galaxies, Hubble's law and the Big Bang. Objects such as black holes, supernovae, pulsars, dark matter and wormholes are encountered and studied along the way.

3 lecture hours
Credit: 0.50
Prerequisite: AS101
Exclusion: AS105